Stalking & Stalker Typologies


The stalker profile involves multiple descriptions, definitions and dimensions. With the advent of the Information and Communications Technology, cyber stalking has gradually grown to become a serious concern for law enforcement and anyone engaged in online activities. Presented is a brief overview of stalker typologies.  

The typologies of stalkers are theoretical descriptions shared by both the cyber and physical stalkers. The goal of victim prevention is to first understand their rationale for acting as a predator and then developing strategies to prevent becomingg a victim. Learning to profile and predict the stalker & cyber stalker greatly reduces the predator’s objective of causing you or your loved ones psychological and physical harm.

Stalking is defined as a behavior wherein a person willfully and repeatedly engages in conduct directed towards another person who, if known by the victim, causes significant concern and fear. The predator that initiates and sustains the stalking behavior(s) may or may not recognize he/she is causing their victim serious alarm, perceptual torment and the unfortunate experience of being terrorized.

Stalking involves one person’s obsessive behavior toward another person. Initially, stalking usually takes the form of annoying, threatening or obscene telephone calls, emails or letters. During this period, the victim views the stalker’s actions as more of a form of harassment as opposed to an escalating dangerous situation. Once the harassment stage has been established, it is during this period the potential victim needs to contact law enforcement. It is also crucial to begin keeping a written log documenting each time the stalker makes contact.

Psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals view most stalkers as suffering from a psychiatric illness(s) causing them to be psychotic or delusional. When not deemed as psychotic, stalkers are considered plagued by some type of personality disorder or fueled by unique psychological factors. In the most severe cases, the stalker is defined as a predatory stalker or sociopath.

Whatever the psychological rationale may be, the stalker rarely comprehends the fear he/she is causing the other person. Blinded by his/her motivations to be stalking someone in the first place causes them to lose sight of the fear and terror they are causing. When anger, rage and hostility towards the victim are involved, the stalker is fully aware of the anguish he/she is causing, but feels the victim is deserving of the fear or simply does not care. In 1999, Australian stalking expert, Dr. Paul Mullen, and a group of investigators identified five types of stalkers, which, remains applicable today for stalkers and cyber stalkers and as follows:

I.   Rejected Stalkers: This type of stalker is motivated to pursue their victim in attempt to reverse what they perceive as a wrongful set of circumstances causing a prior divorce, separation or termination of a relationship. These offenders either feel misunderstood hoping to reverse the break up or feel angry and seeking revenge because their attempts at reconciliation with the victim has failed in the past.

II. Resentful Stalkers: This type of stalker can be dangerous given their perceived motivation for stalking. Resentful stalkers are fully aware the victim is cognizant of the stalking, but continues to fulfill a distorted vendetta he/she feels is warranted. Fear and distress experienced by the victim are the goals of this type of stalker. For this type of profile, the stalker believes the victim both deserves and requires being frightened because they have caused them and/or others anguish and distress.

III.     Intimacy Seekers: This type of stalker does not have ill will towards their victim and simply wants to engage in a loving relationship with them. Intimacy seekers view their victims as their soul mate destined to be together at all costs. Within their mind, they believe it is their job and purpose to ensure destiny of a loving relationship is fulfilled. Intimacy seeker stalkers are often the segment of men or women who harass celebrities and public figures. Blinded by their distorted perceptions of a destined love, they lose sight of the distress and fear they’re causing the person they stalk.

IV. Incompetent Suitors: These individuals who fit this profile are stalkers deeply enamored with their victim. Their interest for the victim at times can reach a state of fixation whereby their entire waking life is focused on the endeavor of one day becoming a couple. They tend to lack social, communication or courting skills and may feel entitled that their fantasy of a loving relationship is inevitable. Feeling entitled and/or deserving of a relationship with the victim inspires the stalker to gradually increase their frequency of contact. Although similar to the Intimacy Seeker stalker, incompetent suitors are more gradual in their means and methods of contact.

V.  Predatory Stalkers: Of the five types, the predatory stalker is by far the most dangerous and determined. This type of stalker is motivated by a perverted sexual need. They engage in actively planning an attack and premeditate as the predator how he will go about engaging in a sexual act(s) with his victim. They do not have feelings of love for their victim nor motivated by a belief of predestination. Their fuel to dominate and victimize resembles the sociopath experiencing little to no remorse for the welfare of their victim.

Understanding the types of stalker and what motivates them is the first step in reducing the probability of becoming one of their victims. Unfortunately, many men, women and society in general minimize the stalker profile and mistakenly view these people as “unfortunate souls looking for love.” What people fail to understand is most of these predators engaged in stalking suffer troublesome psychiatric illnesses, psychological issues, or motivated by urges to sexually dominate their victim(s).

Every year in the United States alone, over 1 million women and 370,000 men are stalked. Roughly 80% of women and 65% of men know the identity of their stalker. Regarding stalking activity, more than 66% of stalkers engage in pursuit of their victim at least one time weekly. Cyber stalking and online predators are new dangers since the birth of the Internet twenty years ago. People ranging in age from children to seniors now use the Internet for a multitude of reasons. As millions of people use Information and Communications Technology (ICT), millions more will become victims. The Information Age has created an entirely new breed of stalker called the cyberstalker.

Robert O’Block is founder of the American College of Forensic Examiners International (ACFEI). ACFEI is the largest professional forensic education organization in the world and honored to have as its advisory board members many of the top forensic experts of the 21st century. As all humanity now thrives in the Information Age, Dr. O’Block & ACFEI continues to investigate development of forensic educational services that incorporate Information and Communications Technology. Plans have been made to one day offer the forensic field educational services focused on Cyber Justice, iPredator, Cyber Criminal/Forensic Psychology and Digital Forensics.      

Feel free to visit their website at If interested in contacting Dr. O’Block or ACFEI, their phone number is (800) 423-9737.ACFEI-Robert-O'Block-Cyber-Justice





Robert O’Block – Six Typologies of iPredator

Robert O'Block founder of the American College of Forensic Examiners International (ACFEI), has committed himself and his organization’s resources to disseminating ACFEI member, Dr. Michael Nuccitelli’s, new technological predator construct termed, iPredator. Robert O'Block | Six Typologies of iPredator


Cyber Bullying, Cyber Harassment, Cyber Stalking, Cyber Crime, Online Sexual Predation & Cyber Terrorism

As the largest forensic sciences professional organization in the world, Robert O'Block and ACFEI have begun introducing information relevant to Information Age forensic science. He hopes his endeavors will one day initiate a national awareness campaign to what he terms, Cyber Justice. Robert O'Block is passionate about helping stop the widespread growth of cyber victimization of children, adults and all ICT users. The definition of iPredator and the six typologies are as follows:        

iPredator: A child, adult or group who, directly or indirectly, engages in exploitation, victimization, stalking, theft or disparagement of others using Information and Communications Technology (ICT.) iPredators are driven by deviant fantasies, desires for power and control, retribution, religious fanaticism, political reprisal, psychiatric illness, perceptual distortions, peer acceptance or personal and financial gain. iPredators can be any age, either gender and not bound by economic status, race or national heritage. iPredator is a global term used to distinguish anyone who engages in criminal, deviant or abusive behaviors using Information and Communications Technology (ICT.) Whether the offender is a cyberbullycyberstalkercyber harassercyber criminalonline sexual predatorinternet troll or cyber terrorist, they fall within the scope of iPredator. The three criteria used to define an iPredator include:

I. A self-awareness of causing harm to others, directly or indirectly, using ICT. II. The intermittent to frequent usage of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to obtain, exchange and deliver harmful information. III. A general understanding of Cyberstealth used to engage in criminal or deviant activities or to profile, identify, locate, stalk and engage a target.                                                                                                      

Unlike human predators prior to the Information Age, iPredators rely on the multitude of benefits offered by Information and Communications Technology (ICT.) These assistances include exchange of information over long distances, rapidity of information exchanged and the seemingly infinite access to data available. Malevolent in intent, iPredators rely on their capacity to deceive others using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in an abstract electronic universe.

Although it is assumed all humanity, has residing deep in their psyche, the potential & Dark Psychology for behaving in harmful and malevolent ways they rarely or never activate, ICT and cyberspace offers a direct connection and psychological route to the dark side. Just as ICT and cyberspace is incredibly pro-social and beneficial to humanity, these same technological advancements can lead humanity to diabolical and sinister endeavors.

The typologies & behavioral patterns of iPredator include: Cyber Bullying, Cyber Harassment, Cyber StalkingCyber CrimeOnline Sexual Predation, Internet Defamation, Cyber Deviance, Cyber Deception and Cyber Terrorism. Within this construct, Cyber Harassment is the adult form of Cyber Bullying and used when the perpetrator is an adult.

Vital to understanding the theoretical core of iPredator is the staunch belief that iPredators are variants of classical criminals, deviants and nefarious entities. ICT and the Information Age have created a new dimension leading to an entirely new population of humanity engaged in malevolent, harmful and deceptive practices. ICT and cyberspace are not tools used by the sociopath, deviant, narcissist or classic criminal, but part of a new generation that will be permanent fixtures to humanity for centuries to follow.   

The term, iPredator, is a global construct designed to include any child, adult, business entity or organized group who uses ICT to harm, abuse, steal from, assault or defame other ICT users. Also included in this construct are people who use ICT to benefit from the victimization and harm of others, but are not the principal perpetrators. Prime examples of this iPredator subset are criminals who engage in the sale and profit of child pornography using ICT. As ICT advances and humanity becomes more dependent upon information technology, it is inevitable the typologies of iPredator will expand as well. The 2012 formal definition of iPredator is as follows:

Cyber Stalking: Cyber stalking is defined as the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to stalk, control, manipulate or habitually threaten a child, adult, business or group. Cyber stalking is both a tactic used by an ICT assailant and typology of pathological ICT user. Cyber stalking tactics include false accusations, threats of harm, habitual monitoring, surveillance, implied threats, identity theft, damage to property and gathering information to manipulate and control their target. To meet the criteria of cyber stalking, the information and tactics used must involve a credible or implied physical and psychological threat to the target. An example of physical threat involves bodily harm to the target or their loved ones using ICT. Examples of psychological threats involve using disparagement, humiliation, dis-information dissemination and environmental damage to the target's reputation, credibility or financial status if the target does not acquiesce to the cyber stalker's demands.

Cyber Harassment: Cyber harassment is defined as the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to harass, control, manipulate or habitually disparage a child, adult, business or group without a credible or implied threat of harm. Cyber harassment is a tactic used by an ICT assailant that may or may not be rooted in an attempt to control, dominate or manipulate their target. Although cyber harassment pertains to unrelenting taunting and disparaging information directed at a child, adult, public figure, group or business using ICT, the motivations of the assailant may be rooted in their own pathological drives and motivations devoid of the need to control, dominate or manipulate their target.

Cyber Bullying: Like classic bullying, cyber bullying is harmful, repeated and hostile behavior intended to taunt, deprecate & defame a targeted child. Cyber bullying describes threatening or disparaging information against a target child delivered through Information and Communications Technology (ICT.) Unlike classic bullying, cyber bullying includes a phenomenon called Cyber Bullying by proxy. Cyber bullying by proxy occurs when a cyber bully encourages or persuades others to engage in deprecating and harassing a target child. Cyber bullying by proxy is a dangerous form of cyber bullying because adults may become the accomplices to the cyber bully involved in the harassment and do not know they are dealing with a child or someone they may know. A cyber bully is usually driven by a need for peer acceptance, but may engage in these maladaptive behaviors out of ignorance of the distress they cause a target child, or the most malevolent form, feels minimal remorse for the harm they are inflicting upon the target child.   

Cybercrime: Cybercrime is defined as crimes and criminal activity committed on the Internet using Information and Communications Technology as the tools to target victims. All forms of cybercrime involve both Information and Communications Technology and a targeted victim(s). Cybercrime is segmented into two distinct categories involving the focus of the cyber criminal activities. These activities are focalized on the technology of Information and Communications Technology to achieve the cyber criminal’s aims for personal and financial gain or targeted at the person using the Information and Communications Technology. When the individual is the main target of cybercrime, Information and Communications Technology is the tool rather than the target. These are the crimes, which have existed for centuries in offline societies. Scams, theft and fraud have existed long before the development of information technology. Cyber criminals utilize technological tools that increase their potential pool of victims and make them difficult to identify and apprehend. Cybercrime targets people, property or governments using Information and Communications Technology.

Cyber Terrorism: Cyber Terrorism is defined as the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) by iPredators, organized groups and/or terrorist groups to advance their agenda motivated by religious, political and/or philosophical ideologies. Examples of cyber terrorism include 1. The use of ICT to organize and execute attacks against networks, and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructures. 2. The exchanging of information or making threats electronically. 3. The act of hacking into computer systems. 4. Introducing viruses and malware to vulnerable networks. 5. Defacement of websites and blogs. 6. Denial-of-service attacks 7. Terroristic threats made via electronic communication.

When strategic cyber attacks are motivated for financial gain, these attacks are defined as cybercrime. Cyber terrorism is any premeditated, politically, religious or philosophically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs and data, which results in violence against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents. A cyber terrorist attack is designed to cause physical violence or extreme financial harm to the targeted victims or community. According to the U.S. Commission of Critical Infrastructure Protection, cyber terrorist targets include the banking industry, military installations, power plants, air traffic control centers and water systems. The F.B.I. define cyber terrorism as "The premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs and data which result in violence against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents."   

Online Sexual Predation: The typology of iPredator that is categorized in Online Sexual Predators has a variety of different terms used to describe the same patterns and motivations for their abuse. Online Sexual Predators are defined as adult online users who seek to exploit vulnerable children or adolescents for sexual or other abusive purposes. Online Sexual Predators are sexual predators who use Information and Communications Technology and the Internet to locate, target and victimize minors. Common forums used by Online Sexual Predators to target children include chat rooms, instant messaging or social networking sites for the purpose of flirting with and meeting others for illicit sexual experiences. Online Sexual Predators often are motivated to manipulate or "groom" a minor with the ultimate goal of meeting and engaging in sexual activity, despite knowing they are engaging in illegal activities. In instances where meeting their victims to engage in sexual activities is not the primary objective, Online Sexual Predators also attempt to persuade children and adolescents to participate in some form of online sexual and/or sexually provocative activity motivated by sexual deviance and/or for financial gain engaging in the distribution and sale of child pornography.

iPredator Inc. Robert O'Block Cyber Justice

Robert O’Block is founder of the American College of Forensic Examiners International (ACFEI). ACFEI is the largest professional forensic education organization in the world and honored to have as its advisory board members many of the top forensic experts of the 21st century. As all humanity now thrives in the Information Age, Dr. O’Block & ACFEI continues to investigate development of forensic educational services that incorporate Information and Communications Technology. Plans have been made to one day offer the forensic field educational services focused on Cyber Justice, iPredator, Cyber Criminal/Forensic Psychology and Digital Forensics.    

Feel free to visit their website at If interested in contacting Dr. O’Block or ACFEI, their phone number is (800) 423-9737.


Robert-O'Block-ACFEI-iPredator-Cyber Justice